SUMMARY of the Article “COP28 to SB60,” by Aisha Khan, Dawn, June 1st, 2024

9 min readJun 1, 2024


The article outlines the importance of the 60th session of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60) taking place from June 3–13, 2024, in Bonn, as a critical preparatory event for COP29. The SB60 aims to recalibrate positions and find compromises to facilitate a successful outcome at COP29. The conference has three primary tasks: agreeing on a new post-2025 climate finance goal to ensure adequate funding for developing countries to meet their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), building momentum for the next generation of national climate plans, and providing guidance on the first Global Stock Take (GST) outcomes. The success of COP29 hinges on overcoming fixed positions regarding new collective quantified goals (NCQG) for climate finance, which is a contentious issue. Effective negotiation processes and continued implementation of COP28 outcomes are necessary to maintain progress. The Bonn dialogue must address financial packages, particularly linking adaptation finance to the NCQG, and focus on loss and damage (L&D) and the global goal on adaptation (GGA). It is essential for Bonn to agree on modalities for the UAE-Belem work programme and emphasize grant-based public finance to advance the GGA. The UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience (UAE-FGCR) and NCQG must synergize to catalyze adaptation action. The Bonn dialogue should concentrate on resilience and adaptation, avoiding agenda battles, and ensuring comprehensive implementation of plans. With the Global South’s frustration growing over unmet promises, SB60 must escalate COP29 priorities into leader-level engagement, building bridges between developed and developing countries for a shared vision.

Easy/Short SUMMARY:

The article discusses the upcoming climate conference (SB60) in Bonn, which is important for preparing for COP29. The main goals are to agree on new climate finance for developing countries, create better national climate plans, and follow up on previous climate agreements. A big focus is on solving disagreements about how much money should be provided for climate projects. The Bonn meeting needs to plan financial packages, especially for adaptation and loss and damage. It’s important for developing countries that there are clear financial plans. The conference should avoid wasting time on unimportant arguments and focus on getting real actions done. With growing frustration in developing countries, SB60 must push for strong commitments at COP29.

SOLUTIONS of The Problem:

Establishment of Clear Climate Finance Goals

Set clear, achievable targets for climate finance that ensure adequate funding for developing countries to meet their climate commitments, with a focus on transparency and accountability.

Enhancement of Adaptation Finance

Prioritize grant-based and concessional finance for adaptation projects, ensuring that funds are accessible and sufficient to meet the needs of vulnerable communities.

Improvement of Loss and Damage Mechanisms

Develop comprehensive frameworks for addressing loss and damage, including clear terms of reference for reviews and increased financial support, to ensure effective response to climate impacts.

Integration of UAE-Belem Work Programme

Agree on the modalities for the UAE-Belem work programme, focusing on developing indicators and targets for inclusive and participatory approaches to guide climate resilience efforts.

Promotion of Public Finance for Climate Action

Emphasize the need for public finance that is grant-based and concessional to advance global climate goals, reducing reliance on private finance which may not be as accessible to developing countries.

Synergy Between Frameworks and Goals

Create synergies between the UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience and the NCQG on climate finance to catalyze adaptation actions, ensuring coherent and coordinated efforts.

Focus on Resilience and Adaptation

Direct the SB60 discussions towards resilience and adaptation, avoiding unproductive agenda battles, and ensuring expert-guided, targeted inputs to capture comprehensive views from all stakeholders.

Building Bridges Between Developed and Developing Countries

Facilitate dialogue and build consensus between developed and developing countries to foster a shared vision for climate action, driving political agendas towards mutually beneficial outcomes.

Comprehensive Implementation of Climate Plans

Ensure comprehensive and effective implementation of climate plans by making cross-cutting conversations an integral part of the UAE-FGCR, fostering operationalization during the work programme.

Escalation of Priorities to Leader-Level Engagement

Escalate the priorities identified at SB60 to leader-level engagement at COP29, ensuring that high-level political commitment drives meaningful action and concrete results.

IMPORTANT Facts and Figures Given in the Article:

  • The 60th session of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60) will be held from June 3–13, 2024, in Bonn.
  • Key tasks include agreeing on a new post-2025 climate finance goal, building momentum for national climate plans, and guiding the first Global Stock Take (GST) outcomes.
  • Financial packages, particularly for adaptation, remain a contentious issue.
  • The UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience (UAE-FGCR) needs improved financial provisions for adaptation.
  • Emphasis is needed on grant-based and concessional public finance for advancing the global goal on adaptation (GGA).
  • The Bonn dialogue must focus on resilience and adaptation, avoiding unproductive agenda battles.
  • Growing frustration in the Global South over unmet climate promises necessitates strong commitments at COP29.

MCQs from the Article:

1. When will the 60th session of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60) take place?

A. May 3–13, 2024 B. July 3–13, 2024 C. June 3–13, 2024 D. August 3–13, 2024

2. What is the most contentious issue discussed at SB60?

A. National climate transition plans B. Climate finance C. Global Stock Take outcomes D. UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience

3. Which framework is mentioned as needing improved financial provisions for adaptation?

A. COP29 Framework B. Global Climate Action Plan C. UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience D. NCQG on climate finance

4. What is emphasized as crucial for advancing the global goal on adaptation (GGA)?

A. Private finance B. Increased litigation C. Technical innovations D. Grant-based and concessional public finance

5. What should the Bonn dialogue primarily focus on to ensure effective implementation?

A. Agenda battles B. Resilience and adaptation C. Increasing climate skepticism D. Expanding fossil fuel use

6. Which region’s frustration is growing due to unmet climate promises?

A. Global North B. Global South C. Europe D. North America

7. What should SB60 avoid to make progress towards COP29?

A. Climate finance discussions B. Fighting agenda battles C. Collaboration with developing countries D. Public awareness campaigns


  1. Subsidiary (adjective) (ذیلی): Less important but related or supplementary.
  2. Recalibrate (verb) (دوبارہ کیلنڈربنا): Adjust precisely for a particular function.
  3. Convergence (noun) (اتحاد): The process or state of converging.
  4. Troika (noun) (تین جماعتوں کا اتحاد): A group of three people working together.
  5. Quantum (noun) (مقدار): The minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction.
  6. Complementarity (noun) (تکمیلیت): A relationship or situation in which two or more different things improve or emphasize each other’s qualities.
  7. Modalities (noun) (طریقے): A particular mode in which something exists or is experienced or expressed.
  8. Concessional (adjective) (رعایتی): Relating to or denoting a reduction in taxes or other benefits.
  9. Synergies (noun) (ہم آہنگی): Interactions or cooperation giving rise to a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.
  10. Catalyzing (verb) (عمل انگیزی کرنا): Cause or accelerate a reaction by acting as a catalyst.
  11. Operationalisation (noun) (عملی بنانا): The process of putting something into operation.
  12. Guard rail (noun) (حفاظتی جنگلہ): A rail or barrier put in place to prevent accidents or guide movements.
  13. Platitudes (noun) (عمومیات): A remark or statement, especially one with a moral content, that has been used too often to be interesting or thoughtful.
  14. Adoption (noun) (منظوری): The action or fact of adopting or being adopted.
  15. Negotiators (noun) (مذاکرات کرنے والے): People who discuss to reach an agreement.
  16. Resilience (noun) (لچک): The capacity to recover quickly from difficulties.
  17. Inclusive (adjective) (شامل): Including all the services or items normally expected or required.
  18. Participatory (adjective) (شراکتی): Involving or characterized by participation.
  19. Implementation (noun) (عمل درآمد): The process of putting a decision or plan into effect.
  20. Escalate (verb) (شدید تر کرنا): Increase rapidly.

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As the overall political progress on the road to COP29 remains slow, SB will be key for negotiators to recalibrate their positions and identify areas of compromise, with a view to laying the groundwork for an outcome at COP29. The upcoming climate conference will be judged on how it delivers on three core tasks: 1) agreement on a new post-2025 climate finance goal that lays the groundwork for the free flow of finance to developing countries to meet their Nationally Determined Contributions commitments; 2) build momentum for the next generation of national climate transition and resilience plans; 3) guide countries on how to follow up and deliver on the outcome of the first Global Stock Take (GST). The extent to which Bonn can narrow down differences will determine the COP29 outcome. The most important task for negotiators will be to push beyond fixed positions on the new collective quantified goals (NCQG) that can unlock progress in negotiations and pave the pathway for a final solution. To this end, the talks must use UNFCCC processes to continue the implementation of outcomes from COP28 and the GST. This is the time to build pressure on the COP29 presidency and the COP troika of the UAE, Azerbaijan and Brazil to take ownership of the UNFCCC process from Bonn to Baku and steer parties towards convergence across topics under the roadmap of keeping 1.5 alive. As the most important dialogue before the upcoming Conference of Parties, the Bonn dialogue must initiate several key actions for adoption of a financial package at COP29. As finance remains the most hotly contested and contentious issue, the SB meetings should link the adaptation financial package to the NCQG process, encompassing discussions on categories, scope, contributions, quantum, quality, time frame and frequency. Before COP29, the Bonn dialogue must initiate key actions. For developing countries, conversations on loss and damage and the global goal on adaptation (GGA) will be very important. This includes agreement on terms of reference for the 2024 review of the Warsaw International Mechanism and increased profile of L&D in NCQG negotiations as sub-goals with greater clarity on coordination, coherence and complementarity between previous dialogues, and the scale of L&D finance needed to feed into NCQG negotiations. The GGA progress in Bonn will set the stage for a meaningful outcome at COP29. The UAE Framework for Global Climate Resilience (UAE FGCR) does not have adequate financial provisions for adaptation to give hope of meeting targets. This makes it necessary for parties in Bonn to agree to modalities of the UAE-Belem work programme by developing indicators and targets to ensure that an inclusive and participatory approach is used to guide the process. At COP28, the overall strategy for advancing the GGA identified dimensional and sectoral targets but weak financial provision remains a stumbling block. SB60 needs to emphasise the need for prioritising public finance that is grant-based and concessional to push the agenda forward. It is important to use UAE-FGCR and the NCQG on climate finance to create synergies for catalysing adaptation action. The oft-resisted inclusion of Means of Implementation as an integral part of finance will once again come in the way of closing the financial gap for adaptation. This year the issues under discussion must build momentum on decisions taken at Dubai with an eye on giving the agenda a meaningful thrust for concretising action in Belem at COP30. To restore confidence in the multilateral system, negotiators in Bonn must make cross-cutting conversations an int­egral part of the UAE-FGCR and make efforts towards operationalisation during the work programme to ensure comprehensive and effective implementation. The SB60 should avoid losing time on fighting agenda battles, and focus on matters relating to resilience and adaptation. The foremost consideration should be narrowing the submission scope guided by experts’ outputs to help receive targeted inputs and generating discussion to capture additional views from parties and stakeholders. As the planet inches closer to crashing the 1.5 guard rail, the mood in the Global South is souring and platitudes are no longer acceptable to the people. With patience running out for promises without a plan, SB has its work cut out for escalating COP29 priorities into leader-level engagement. Bonn offers an opportunity for building bridges between developed and developing countries around a shared vision and driving political agendas towards landing zones. The writer is chief executive of the Civil Society Coalition for Climate Change. Published in Dawn, June 1st, 2024



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